The Qur’an makes the effort is clearly made to show the relationship of this text with the previous texts of the Judaic and Christian traditions. The end of this means is the text referring to Islam, or the Submission, as the fulfillment of prophecy from God, or Allah, to the “people of the book.”
The Second Surah, is dedicated to the people of Israel, or the Jewish people, while the Third is intended more for those of the Christian faith (Qur’an pgs. 16, 125). The First Surah contains references to Adam, Moses and Abraham (2:31, 33-24, 53). This is done to insure that those who come in contact with the text, or prophecies, would be forced to recognize a relationship between this text and the Jewish text of the Torah. This is also done for the later Christian additions to the Old Testament. The Christians likewise make references to the Torah and Old Testament through out the Gospels and Epistles of the New Testament. Along with references to early Jewish patriarchs, it is made clear within the text that the people of Israel, though having been given a mandate by Allah, had failed (2:39, 54, 61).
The Third Surah opens with passages condemning those who reject the faith (3:10-11, 21) Then moves to the promises to the family of Imran, of whom Mary the Virgin is a daughter (3:42). Like Christianity, Mary give birth to the Christ as a virgin, yet, the text dismisses the claim of Christianity that Christ is the Son of God (3:47, 55)
The text makes clear that those who believe in the Qur’an, and the Jewish scriptures, as well of those of the Christian faith, will “have their reward,” but it is also clear, as mentioned before, that the ones who followed the prophecies from before had failed, and that this text should be the new standard of judgment for those who follow God.
The reason for this failure was different for both the Jews and the Christians. The Jews had strayed from Allah, as pointed out numerously in the Second Surah. This was done by not following the earlier prophets, by not accepting Jesus as a prophet, and by what some believed to be the claiming of Ezra as the Son of God. The Christians, though at first seeming to follow the prophet Jesus Christ, later, fell in to blasphemy by declaring the Jesus was the son of God, and not just a messenger of the Word.
By looking at the text, it is clear to see that Islam and the Qur’an were not meant to replace either the Jewish or Christian faiths, but to bring them back into the fold of true belief in God. Though this would seemingly mean the “end” of both Judaism and Christianity, the Qur’an does not explicitly say this. The Second and Third Surahs are written not to condemn these two faiths, but to correct them, much in the tradition of both Judaism and Christianity which had come before Islam. However, though the effort of the text might be correction towards the true, and new, faith, it also spells out eternal damnation for those who do not repent and return to Allah.
All Citations are from “The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an” Yousef Ali version.